1. Given the diagram showing identical levels of gas molecules in different containers, a reasonable inference could be made that there is a relationship between:

**A.** temperature and pressure

**B.** volume and pressure

**C.** temperature and density

**D.** volume and temperature

2. The relationship between the variables in this diagram is best described as what type of relationship?

**A.** direct

**B.** proportional

**C.** inverse

**D.** exponential

3. The expression of the relationship between the demonstrated variables is most commonly known as:

**A.** Coulomb’s law

**B.** Newton’s second law

**C.** Ohm’s law

**D.** Boyle’s law

4. Given the information displayed in the diagram, which equation using the terms p (pressure), V (volume) and k (constant value) best describes the relationship between the variables?

**A.** V=p/k

**B.** pV=k

**C.** pk=V?

**D.** k=p/V

5. What basic force in fluid dynamics is on display in this diagram?

**A.** cavitation

**B.** vortex formation

**C.** compression

**D.** buoyancy

6. In order to compute the buoyant force being exerted on an object in fluid, what measurements would be needed?

I. volume of object

II. density of fluid

III. force of gravity

**A.** I only

**B.** I and II

**C.** III only

**D.** I, II and II

7. Given an object with volume V placed in a fluid with density p, what equation would yield the buoyant force F if measured in a lab with standard acceleration of gravity g?

**A.** F = (p/V)g

**B.** F = -p(V/g)

**C.** F = -pVg

**D.** F = pVg

8. Two folding metal boxes of the same mass and weight are placed in identical containers of fluid. The first box has a volume of 12 cubic inches and floats in the fluid. The second box has been folded into an identical shape as the first one but with a volume of 6 cubic inches. Of the listed outcomes, which is most likely?

**A.** The second box will float because the buoyant force is unchanged

**B.** The second box will sink because the buoyant force has been reduced

**C.** The second box will float because the surface area has changed

**D.** The second box will sink because the surface area has changed

9. Given the information in the chart, if a student were to apply heat to equal volumes of all four liquids along with a volume of water, which liquids would boil before the water?

**A.** Q and S

**B.** R and T

**C.** Q and R

**D.** S and T

10. If a student were to pour samples of the fluids (all insoluble in water) listed in the table into flasks filled with water, which has a density of 0.998 g/mL, which liquid would form a layer at the top of the flask?

I. Q

II. S

III. T

**A.** I only

**B.** II only

**C.** I and III

**D.** II and III

11. In working with these fluids in a lab environment, which liquid would require the greatest caution when working with Bunsen burners?

**A.** Q

**B.** R

**C.** S

**D.** T

12. If a student is performing an experiment that requires a liquid that has a density less than water, has a higher boiling point than water, and has a distinctive odor, which of the liquids on the chart would be best to use?

**A.** Q

**B.** R

**C.** S

**D.** T

13. Based on this chart, which population had the least variation throughout the time period measured?

**A.** turtles

**B.** dinosaurs

**C.** snakes

**D.** crocodilians

14. Which period listed on the chart likely had the largest numbers of each species mentioned co-existing?

**A.** Triassic

**B.** Cretaceous

**C.** Quaternary

**D.** Permian

15. Of the five species on the chart, which reached the greatest numbers during the time spans measured?

**A.** dinosaurs

**B.** snakes

**C.** turtles

**D.** lizards

16. Based on the chart, which period was the last one in which all species co-existed?

**A.** Jurassic

**B.** Cretaceous

**C.** Permian

**D.** Pennsylvanian

17. Given that all other variables (sunlight, water) were constant for this experiment, it could be reasonably inferred that growing trees in a CO2 enriched atmosphere led to what percentage increase in time to drop all leaves?

**A.** 44%

**B.** 46%

**C.** 48%

**D.** 50%

18. What atmospheric additive appears to be most effective in speeding up the leaf-shedding period according to the chart?

**A.** None

**B.** CO2

**C.** O3

**D.** CO2 + O3

19. What is the total time variance experienced for leaf-shedding periods as demonstrated in the experiments listed on this chart?

**A.** 8

**B.** 10

**C.** 16

**D.** 23

20. Based on the information listed on the chart, what natural process would the atmospheric additives tested in this experiment be most affected and likely cause the variance in leaf-shedding times?

**A.** mitosis

**B.** respiration

**C.** photosynthesis

**D.** replication